Wissenschaftliche Quellen


Hier findest du die wichtigsten wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten, auf die sich diese System und die Ausbildung stützt.

Forschung und Studien zu Immunsignatur und Lebensstilmedizin, Energiestoffwechsel, Immunsystem, Nervensystem

Wir legen sehr großen Wert auf wissenschaftliches Arbeiten. Gleichzeitig wissen wir, dass die wissenschaftliche Methode weitaus mehr zu bieten hat als die aktuell verfügbaren wissenschaftlichen Publikationen. Die Immunsignatur ist eine gute Mischung aus wirksamem, praktischem Erfahrungswissen und der aktuell verfügbaren wissenschaftlichen Evidenz.

Für die Inhalte der Immunsignatur hat unser medizinisches Team über 8.000 Studien gescreened. Davon sind 3.000 in tieferer Analyse in unsere Datenbank geflossen, etwa 500 in die engeren Quellenangaben und eine kleine Auswahl findest du hier, um dir einen Überblick zu verschaffen, welche Inhalte dich erwarten.


1. Die Immunsignatur und das Nervensystem


Kelly, John R., Paul J. Kennedy, John F. Cryan, Timothy G. Dinan, Gerard Clarke, and Niall P. Hyland. 2015. “Breaking down the Barriers: The Gut Microbiome, Intestinal Permeability and Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 9(OCT).

Poroyko, Valeriy A., Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A. Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B. Chang, and David Gozal. 2016. “Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice.” Scientific Reports 6(September):1–11.

Zheng, Gen, Gordon Victor Fon, Walter Meixner, Amy Creekmore, Ye Zong, M. K. Michael Dame, Justin Colacino, Priya H. Dedhia, Shuangsong Hong, and John W. Wiley. 2017. “Chronic Stress and Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction: Glucocorticoid Receptor and Transcription Repressor HES1 Regulate Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 Promoter.” Scientific Reports 7(1):1–12.

Kudielka, B. M., S. Bellingrath, and D. H. Hellhammer. 2006. “Cortisol in Burnout and Vital Exhaustion : An Overview.” 34–42.

Burmistr, Iana. 2018. “Theories of Pain, up to Descartes and after Neuromatrix: What Role Do They Have to Develop Future Paradigms?” Pain Medicine 3(1):6–12.

Yoo, Seung-schik, Ninad Gujar, Peter Hu, Ferenc A. Jolesz, and Matthew P. Walker. n.d. “The Human Emotional Brain without Sleep — a Prefrontal Amygdala Disconnect.” 877–78.

Stilwell, Peter and Katherine Harman. 2019. “An Enactive Approach to Pain: Beyond the Biopsychosocial Model.” Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18(4):637–65.

Sertöz, Özen Önen, İ. Tolga B. İ. Nbay, and Hayriye E. L. B. İ. Mete. 2008. “The Neurobiology of Burnout : The Hypothalamus- Pituitary-Adrenal Gland Axis and Other Findings.” 19(3):1–11.

Müller, Norbert, Elif Weidinger, Bianka Leitner, and Markus J. Schwarz. 2015. “The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia.” Frontiers in Neuroscience 9(OCT).

Leeuw, Maaike, Mariëlle E. J. B. Goossens, Steven J. Linton, Geert Crombez, Katja Boersma, and Johan W. S. Vlaeyen. 2007. “The Fear-Avoidance Model of Musculoskeletal Pain: Current State of Scientific Evidence.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine 30(1):77–94.

Mcewen, Bruce S. 2007. “Physiology and Neurobiology of Stress and Adaptation : Central Role of the Brain.” 873–904.

Abbasi, Behnood, Masud Kimiagar, Khosro Sadeghniiat, Minoo M. Shirazi, Mehdi Hedayati, and Bahram Rashidkhani. 2012. “The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation on Primary Insomnia in Elderly: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences : The Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 17(12):1161–69.

Baumeister, Roy. 2018. “The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Blood Glucose to Self-Control.” (December 2007).

Ilchmann-Diounou, Hanna and Sandrine Menard. 2020. “Psychological Stress, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunctions, and Autoimmune Disorders: An Overview.” Frontiers in Immunology 11(August):1–12.

Peters, Achim and Bruce S. McEwen. 2015. “Stress Habituation, Body Shape and Cardiovascular Mortality.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 56:139–50.

Zavoreo, Iris, Vanja Bašić Kes, Sandra Morović, Vesna Šerić, and Vida Demarin. 2010. “Breath Holding Index in Detection of Early Cognitive Decline.” Journal of the Neurological Sciences 299(1):116–19.

Kox, Matthijs, Lucas T. van Eijk, Jelle Zwaag, Joanne van den Wildenberg, Fred C. G. J. Sweep, Johannes G. van der Hoeven, and Peter Pickkers. 2014. “Voluntary Activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Attenuation of the Innate Immune Response in Humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(20):7379–84.

Camandola, Simonetta and Mark P. Mattson. 2017. “Brain Metabolism in Health, Aging, and Neurodegeneration.” The EMBO Journal 36(11):1474–92.

Straub, R. H. 2011. “Neuroendokrinimmunologie: Neue Aspekte Zur Pathogenese Und Klinischen Anwendung.” Zeitschrift Fur Rheumatologie 70(9):767–74.

Phillips, Matthew C. L. 2019. “Fasting as a Therapy in Neurological Disease.” Nutrients 11(10).

Mattson, Mark P., Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, and Aiwu Cheng. 2018. “Intermittent Metabolic Switching, Neuroplasticity and Brain Health.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 19(2):81–94.

Peters, A., U. Schweiger, L. Pellerin, C. Hubold, K. M. Oltmanns, M. Conrad, B. Schultes, J. Born, and H. L. Fehm. 2004. “The Selfish Brain: Competition for Energy Resources.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28(2):143–80.

Gizewski, Elke R., Ruth Steiger, Michaela Waibel, Sergiy Pereverzyev, Patrick J. D. Sommer, Christian Siedentopf, Astrid E. Grams, Lukas Lenhart, and Nicolas Singewald. 2021. “Short-Term Meditation Training Influences Brain Energy Metabolism: A Pilot Study on 31P MR Spectroscopy.” Brain and Behavior 11(1):1–12.



2. Die Immunsignatur und der Energiestoffwechsel


Hotamisligil, Gökhan S. 2017. “Inflammation, Metaflammation and Immunometabolic Disorders.” Nature542(7640):177–85.

Christ, Anette and Eicke Latz. 2019. “The Western Lifestyle Has Lasting Effects on Metaflammation.” Nature Reviews Immunology.

Kanbay, Mehmet, Aslihan Yerlikaya, Alan A. Sag, Alberto Ortiz, Masanari Kuwabara, Adrian Covic, Andrzej Wiecek, Peter Stenvinkel, and Baris Afsar. 2019. “A Journey from Microenvironment to Macroenvironment: The Role of Metaflammation and Epigenetic Changes in Cardiorenal Disease.” Clinical Kidney Journal 12(6):861–70.

Freese, Jens, Rainer Johannes Klement, Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, Sebastian Schwarz, and Helmut Lötzerich. 2017. “The Sedentary (r)Evolution: Have We Lost Our Metabolic Flexibility?” F1000Research 6(0).

Gudkov, Andrei V and Elena A. Komarova. 2016. “P53 and the Carcinogenicity of Chronic Inflammation.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 6(11):a026161.

Wilkin, Terence J. and Linda D. Voss. 2004. “Metabolic Syndrome: Maladaptation to a Modern World.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 97(11):511–20.

Kolb, Hubert, Michael Stumvoll, Werner Kramer, Kerstin Kempf, and Stephan Martin. 2018. “Insulin Translates Unfavourable Lifestyle into Obesity.” BMC Medicine 16(1):1–10.

Charles-Messance, Hugo, Kathleen A. J. Mitchelson, Elena De Marco Castro, Frederick J. Sheedy, and Helen M. Roche. 2020. “Regulating Metabolic Inflammation by Nutritional Modulation.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 146(4):706–20.

Ertunc, Meric Erikci and Gökhan S. Hotamisligil. 2016. “Lipid Signaling and Lipotoxicity in Metaflammation: Indications for Metabolic Disease Pathogenesis and Treatment.” Journal of Lipid Research 57(12):2099–2114.

Kuryłowicz, Alina and Krzysztof Kózniewski. 2020. “Anti-Inflammatory Strategies Targeting Metaflammation in Type 2 Diabetes.” Molecules 25(9).

Holmer, Magnus, Catarina Lindqvist, Sven Petersson, John Moshtaghi-Svensson, Veronika Tillander, Torkel B. Brismar, Hannes Hagström, and Per Stål. 2021. “Treatment of NAFLD with Intermittent Calorie Restriction or Low-Carb High-Fat Diet – a Randomised Controlled Trial.” JHEP Reports 3(3).

Lind, L., C. Berne, and H. Lithell. 1995. “Prevalence of Insulin Resistance in Essential Hypertension.” Journal of Hypertension 13(12 Pt 1):1457—1462.

Sanchez, Albert, S. Christine Chung, Alfredo Mejia, Francisco E. Ramirez, Gerald W. Shavlik, Randall L. Bivens, Sherine Brown-Fraser, and Roger D. Gallant. 2019. “Multiple Lifestyle Interventions Reverses Hypertension” edited by Y. Gao. Cogent Medicine 6(1):1636534.

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V. 2019. “Fasting and Rapamycin: Diabetes versus Benevolent Glucose Intolerance.” Cell Death and Disease 10(8).

Apelo, Sebastian I. Arriol., Cassidy P. Pumper, Emma L. Baar, Nicole E. Cummings, and Dudley W. Lamming. 2016. “Intermittent Administration of Rapamycin Extends the Life Span of Female C57BL/6J Mice.” Journals of Gerontology – Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 71(7):876–81.

Pruimboom, L. and D. Reheis. 2016. “Intermittent Drinking, Oxytocin and Human Health.” Medical Hypotheses 92:80–83.

Caputo, Tiziana, Federica Gilardi, and Béatrice Desvergne. 2017. “From Chronic Overnutrition to Metaflammation and Insulin Resistance: Adipose Tissue and Liver Contributions.” FEBS Letters 591(19):3061–88.

Wiecek, Magdalena, Jadwiga Szymura, Justyna Sproull, and Zbigniew Szygula. 2020. “Whole-Body Cryotherapy Is an Effective Method of Reducing Abdominal Obesity in Menopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome.” Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(9):2797.

Poroyko, Valeriy A., Alba Carreras, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ahamed A. Khalyfa, Vanessa Leone, Eduard Peris, Isaac Almendros, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Zhuanhong Qiao, Nathaniel Hubert, Ramon Farré, Eugene B. Chang, and David Gozal. 2016. “Chronic Sleep Disruption Alters Gut Microbiota, Induces Systemic and Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Mice.” Scientific Reports 6(September):1–11.

Pruimboom, Leo and Frits A. J. Muskiet. 2018. “Intermittent Living; the Use of Ancient Challenges as a Vaccine against the Deleterious Effects of Modern Life – A Hypothesis.” Medical Hypotheses 120:28–42.

de Cabo, Rafael and Mark P. Mattson. 2019. “Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and Disease.” New England Journal of Medicine 381(26):2541–51.

Ghosh, Siddhartha S., Jing Wang, Paul J. Yannie, and Shobha Ghosh. 2020. “Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, LPS Translocation, and Disease Development.” Journal of the Endocrine Society 4(2).

Wilkinson, D., I. M. Chapman, and L. K. Heilbronn. 2012. “Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Humans.” Diabetic Medicine 29(8):986–89.



3. Die Immunsignatur und das Immunsystem


Hayday et al. 2020. “A Dynamic COVID-19 Immune Signature Includes Associations with Poor Prognosis.” Nature Medicine26(10):1623–35.

Hayday et al. 2020. “A Consensus Covid-19 Immune Signature Combines Immuno-Protection with Discrete Sepsis-like Traits Associated with Poor Prognosis.”

DHABHAR, FIRDAUS S. 2000. “Acute Stress Enhances While Chronic Stress Suppresses Skin Immunity: The Role of Stress Hormones and Leukocyte Trafficking.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 917(1):876–93.

Bodenmiller et al. 2020. “A Distinct Innate Immune Signature Marks Progression from Mild to Severe COVID-19.” BioRxiv 2020.08.04.236315.

Liu et al. 2020. “A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Immune Signatures in Patients with COVID-19.” Reviews in Medical Virology n/a(n/a):e2195.

Hussell et al. 2020. “Longitudinal Immune Profiling Reveals Key Myeloid Signatures Associated with COVID-19.” Science Immunology5(51):eabd6197.

Gnessi et al. 2020. “Visceral Fat Shows the Strongest Association with the Need of Intensive Care in Patients with COVID-19.” Metabolism111:154319.

van den Berg, Daan F. and Anje A. te Velde. 2020. “Severe COVID-19: NLRP3 Inflammasome Dysregulated.” Frontiers in Immunology11(June):1–6.

Saeedi-Boroujeni, A. and M. R. Mahmoudian-Sani. 2020. “COVID-19 Pandemic along with Pandemic of Lifestyle-Associated Diseases Victimizes Patients in an Inflammation Context!” Dubai Medical Journal 3(2):55–57.

Luzi, Livio and Maria Grazia Radaelli. 2020. “Influenza and Obesity: Its Odd Relationship and the Lessons for COVID-19 Pandemic.” Acta Diabetologica 57(6):759–64.

Andersen, Catherine J., Kelsey E. Murphy, and Maria Luz Fernandez. 2016. “Impact of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Immunity.” Advances in Nutrition 7(1):66–75.

Martineau, Adrian R. and Nita G. Forouhi. 2020. “Vitamin D for COVID-19: A Case to Answer?” The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 8(9):735–36.

Marhl, Marko, Vladimir Grubelnik, Marša Magdič, and Rene Markovič. 2020. “Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome as Risk Factors for COVID-19.” Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14(4):671–77.

Brookler et al. 2020. “Relationships between Hyperinsulinaemia, Magnesium, Vitamin D, Thrombosis and COVID-19: Rationale for Clinical Management.” Open Heart 7(2):e001356.

Frasca, D. and B. B. Blomberg. 2020. “The Impact of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Vaccination Success.” Pp. 86–97 in Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics.

Gleeson, Laura E., Helen M. Roche, and Frederick J. Sheedy. 2020. “Running Title: Obesity, COVID-19 and Innate Immunometabolism.” British Journal of Nutrition 3:1–5.

Bijani, Behzad, Ali Asghar Pahlevan, Reza Qasemi-Barqi, and Hassan Jahanihashemi. 2016. “Metabolic Syndrome as an Independent Risk Factor of Hypoxaemia in Influenza a (H1N1) 2009 Pandemic.” Infezioni in Medicina24(2):123–30.

Sheridan, P. A., H. A. Paich, J. Handy, E. A. Karlsson, M. G. Hudgens, A. B. Sammon, L. A. Holland, S. Weir, T. L. Noah, and M. A. Beck. 2012. “Obesity Is Associated with Impaired Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Humans.” International Journal of Obesity 36(8):1072–77.

Shamshirian et al. 2020. The Role of Vitamin D in The Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Along with an Ecological Approach.

Lehrer et al. 2020. “The Essential Role of Vitamin D in the Biosynthesis of Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides May Explain Why Deficiency Increases Mortality Risk in COVID-19 Infections.” Preprints.Org (May):1–23.

Davies, Gareth, Attila R. Garami, and Joanna C. Byers. 2020. “Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in COVID-19 Outcomes.” MedRxiv 2020.05.01.20087965.

Meltzer, David O., Thomas J. Best, Hui Zhang, Tamara Vokes, Vineet Arora, and Julian Solway. 2020. “Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results.” JAMA Network Open3(9):e2019722–e2019722.

Martineau et al. 2020. “Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Infections: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Aggregate Data from Randomised Controlled Trials.” MedRxiv2020.07.14.20152728.

Gautier et al. 2020. “Monocytopenia, Monocyte Morphological Anomalies and Hyperinflammation Characterise Severe COVID-19 in Type 2 Diabetes.” EMBO Molecular Medicine12(10):e13038.

Hamm et al. 2020. “The Role of Visceral Adiposity in the Severity of COVID-19 : Highlights from a Unicenter Cross-Sectional Pilot Study in Germany.” (January).

Rusinek et al. 2020. “Visceral Adipose Tissue in Patients with COVID-19: Risk Stratification for Severity.” Abdominal Radiology (Mv).

Del Prato et al. 2020. “COVID-19 in People with Diabetes: Understanding the Reasons for Worse Outcomes.” The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 8(9):782–92.

Zhang et al. 2020. “Association of the Insulin Resistance Marker TyG Index with the Severity and Mortality of COVID-19.” Cardiovascular Diabetology 19(1):58.

Nauck et al. 2020. “COVID-19 and Diabetes Mellitus: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Management.” Nature Reviews Endocrinology.

Finucane, Francis M. and Colin Davenport. 2020. “Coronavirus and Obesity: Could Insulin Resistance Mediate the Severity of Covid-19  Infection?” Frontiers in Public Health 8:184.

Ilchmann-Diounou, Hanna and Sandrine Menard. 2020. “Psychological Stress, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunctions, and Autoimmune Disorders: An Overview.” Frontiers in Immunology 11(August):1–12.

Vassilakopoulos, T., C. Roussos, and S. Zakynthinos. 2004. “The Immune Response to Resistive Breathing.” European Respiratory Journal 24(6):1033–43.